Self Assessment

MISSION2025 Recent Trends Report 31-05-2021

Published On : 2022-06-01
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MISSION2025 Recent Trends Report 31-05-2021

Recently Observed Campaigns

The following list contains recent campaigns observed by CYFIRMA Threat Intelligence (CTI) that are attributed to the MISSION2025 and or its affiliates last seen in 2022.
• C Guard
• Vision2025
• UNC038
• UNC041
• Think pocket
• UNC036
• Uplift19
• Slow Walker
• UNC026
• Bupa Street
• UNC033
• UNC044
• UNC032
• JQC18

Recently Observed Activities Details

These recent campaigns are tracked by CYFIRMA and believed to be active during following time frame.
• C Guard (Jun 19, 2020-May 15, 2022)
• Vision2025 (Oct 31, 2017-May 14, 2022)
• UNC038 (Jan 30, 2022-May 10, 2022)
• UNC041 (Feb 10, 2022-May 10, 2022)
• Think pocket (Aug 21, 2021-Apr 28, 2022)
• UNC036 (Jan 30, 2022-Apr 28, 2022)
• Uplift19 (Jul 31, 2020-Apr 27, 2022)
• Slow Walker (Dec 1, 2020-Apr 24, 2022)
• UNC026 (Mar 15, 2020-Apr 23, 2022)
• Bupa Street (Nov 17, 2020-Apr 18, 2022)
• UNC033 (Dec 19, 2021-Apr 18, 2022)
• UNC044 (Feb 25, 2022-Apr 1, 2022)
• UNC032 (Dec 19, 2021-Feb 14, 2022)
• JQC18 (Jan 1, 2021-Feb 2, 2022)


Out of the 14 campaigns observed by CTI this year – attributed to MISSION2025 – most campaigns were targeted at multiple counties across the globe. Almost all the campaigns were targeted at three or more nation states and not a single campaign observed by CTI appeared to target single specific nations.
The below figure illustrates all the counties which were targeted in these campaigns.

Most Targeted Countries

The following figure illustrates the targeted countries which were subject to the MISSION2025 campaigns.

The United States and Japan have been the most favourable targets for MISSION2025 and were targeted in all the 12 campaigns respectively out the total 14 campaign. Countries like Taiwan and South Korea – while not at the top – remain to be of particular interest to the this group and also featured in multiple campaigns.

Most Targeted Technology

The MISSION2025 leveraged vulnerabilities & exploits in Application Server Software, Web Application, Operating System, Server Virtualization Software, API Management Tools, Remote Desktop Software to infiltrate the network and systems of potential victims.
The below figure illustrates the technologies that were targeted by the threat actor group during these campaigns. From the trends, it can be observed that exploiting weaknesses in web application-related software and products is the most favoured method by the MISSION2025. In addition, attempts to exploit remote access solutions and virtualization have been observed.

Targeted Industries

From the campaign observed by CTI in 2022, MISSION2025 attacked organizations from more than 40+ industry verticals. The targeted list of industries includes:

• Aerospace & Defense
• Auto Components
• Automobiles
• Aviation infrastructure
• Banks
• Commercial Services & Supplies
• Communications Equipment
• Construction
• Construction & Engineering
• Construction Materials
• Diversified Financial Services
• Electronic Equipment
• Energy Equipment & Services
• Entertainment
• Food & Staples Retailing
• Gas Utilities
• Government
• Health Care Equipment & Supplies
• Health Research
• Hotels
• Housing
• Industrial Conglomerates
• Infrastructure Development
• Instruments & Components
• Insurance
• Interactive Media & Services
• Internet & Direct Marketing Retail
• IT Services
• Large Equipment Making Companies
• Media
• Metals & Mining
• Multiline Retail
• Oil Gas & Consumable Fuels
• Optical Sensor
• Professional Services
• Railways
• Restaurants & Leisure
• Software
• Storage & Peripherals
• Technology
• Technology Hardware
• Telecommunication
• Trading Companies & Distributors
• Transportation Infrastructure
• Wireless Telecommunication Services

Malware Observed

Below is the list of all the malware used by MISSION2025 in their campaigns. Interestingly, the threat actor group has used a single malware in entire campaign – examples include UNC026 campaign used Urnsif, and in Bupa Street campaign the Emotet malware was used.
A complete list of malware observed by CYFIRMA during these campaigns is as follows:

Top Malware

While numerous malware was used by the MISSION2025 in these campaigns, the malware namely Cobalt Strike, Emotet, and ASPXSpy were the most observed by CTI.

Threat Actor Profile

Alias: APT 41, APT-41, APT41, BARIUM, Gref, IQGRABBER, Mana Mr. StealYoShoes, PassCV, SparklingGoblin, UNC78, UNIT2025, Winnti, Winnti Umbrella Group

Origin: China

Description: MISSION2025 is suspected to be a Chinese state-sponsored threat actor, possibly working for the Chinese government. The threat actor is believed to be active since at least 2012. It is suspected of executing various campaigns against organizations in multiple industries such as Automotive, Retail, Healthcare, Energy, Hi-Tech, Media, Finance, Healthcare, Telecom, Supply Chain, Travel, etc. The threat actor group is believed to target nations such as the US, UK, Japan, India, France, Italy, Switzerland, Turkey, South Africa, South Korea, Hongkong, Thailand, Myanmar, etc. with the intent of financial gains and/or espionage purpose.

Targeted Countries:  Brazil, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Myanmar, Netherlands, Pakistan, Province of China, Republic of Korea, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, United States of America, Cambodia

Targeted Industries: Aviation, Cryptocurrency, Education, Energy, Finance, Gaming, Government Entities, Healthcare, Hi-Tech, Manufacturing, Media, Military, Pharmaceuticals, Retail, Software Development, Supply Chain, Telecommunications, Travel, Automotive

Tools: The group has been known to utilize the following tools in their attacks chain:
LOWKEY etc. RATs such as GH0ST””, Meterpreter, BlackCoffee, MessageTap, Living off the Land, Crackshot, EASYNIGHT, Derusbi, HDRoot, FRONTWHEEL, XDOOR, ASPXSpy, DIRTCLEANER, TERA, HKDOOR, X-DOOR etc. Credential Stealing malware such as ACEHASH””, BIOPASS RAT, Cobalt Strike, HighNote, PlugX, pwdump, Barlaiy, LIFEBOAT, Mimikatz, POTROAST, DOWNTIME, Jumpall, WIDETONE, Skip-2.0, China Chopper, RedXOR, ZXShell, COLDJAVA, CROSSWALK, GearShift, NTDSDump, ROCKBOOT, WINTERLOVE, DEADEYE, ADORE.XSEC, PipeMon, TIDYELF, PACMAN, certutil, ShadowPad Winnti, xDll, HIGHNOON, LATELUNCH, SAGEHIRE

Malware: The group has been known to utilize the following malware in their attacks chain: “China Chopper, Speculoos Backdoor, ASPXSpy, Winnti, ROCKBOOT, njRAT, ZxShell, gh0st RAT, Derusbi, MoonBounce, BLACKCOFFEE”

Motive: CYFIRMA believes that MISSION2025 group is a state-sponsored and financially motivated threat group, as they have been targeting global companies in multiple industries in the past and possibly could have expanded their target base to other industries. They may have attempted to implant trojans and backdoors to steal sensitive information and are primarily motivated to carry out cyber-espionage campaigns. These campaigns could be carried out to assist the local Chinese companies as part of Made in China 2025 vision with IP, Trade Secrets, and Blueprints, with the possible intent of either Information Exfiltration, Corporate Espionage, or Financial Gains via sale across the Deep/Dark web.

Recent Activity:
The threat actor has been suspected of carrying out ‘Operation CuckooBees’ to deploy a previously undocumented malware strain called DEPLOYLOG along with new versions of their known malware, including Spyder Loader, PRIVATELOG, and WINNKIT. The attackers leveraged the Windows CLFS mechanism and NTFS transaction manipulations which provided them with the ability to conceal their payloads and evade detection by traditional security products. The intent of the threat actor in this campaign seems to be cyberespionage and intellectual property theft.



10TA0009: CollectionT1560.001: Archive Collected Data: Archive via Utility
T1005: Data from Local System
T1056.001: Input Capture: Keylogging11TA0011: Command and ControlT1071.001: Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols
T1071.002: Application Layer Protocol: File Transfer Protocols
T1071.004: Application Layer Protocol: DNS
T1568.002: Dynamic Resolution: Domain Generation Algorithms
T1008: Fallback Channels
T1105: Ingress Tool Transfer
T1104: Multi-Stage Channels
T1090: Proxy
T1102.001: Web Service: Dead Drop Resolver12TA0040: ImpactT1486: Data Encrypted for Impact
T1496: Resource Hijacking

Sr No. Tactic Technique
1 TA0042: Resource Development T1588.002: Obtain Capabilities: Tool
2 TA0001: Initial Access T1190: Exploit Public-Facing Application
T1133: External Remote Services
T1566.001: Phishing: Spearphishing Attachment
T1195.002: Supply Chain Compromise: Compromise Software Supply Chain
T1078: Valid Accounts
3 TA0002: Execution T1059.001: Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell
T1059.003: Command and Scripting Interpreter: Windows Command Shell
T1059.004: Command and Scripting Interpreter: Unix Shell
T1203: Exploitation for Client Execution
T1053.005: Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task
T1569.002: System Services: Service Execution
T1047: Windows Management Instrumentation
4 TA0003: Persistence T1197: BITS Jobs
T1547.001: Boot or Logon AutoStart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder
T1136.001: Create Account: Local Account
T1543.003: Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service
T1546.008: Event Triggered Execution: Accessibility Features
T1133: External Remote Services
T1574.001: Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Search Order Hijacking
T1574.002: Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Side-Loading
T1574.006: Hijack Execution Flow: Dynamic Linker Hijacking
T1542.003: Pre-OS Boot: Bootkit
T1053.005: Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task
T1078: Valid Accounts
5 TA0004: Privilege Escalation T1547.001: Boot or Logon AutoStart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder
T1543.003: Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service
T1546.008: Event Triggered Execution: Accessibility Features
T1574.001: Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Search Order Hijacking
T1574.002: Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Side-Loading
T1574.006: Hijack Execution Flow: Dynamic Linker Hijacking
T1055: Process Injection
T1053.005: Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task
T1078: Valid Accounts
6 TA0005: Defense Evasion T1197: BITS Jobs
T1480.001: Execution Guardrails: Environmental Keying
T1574.001: Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Search Order Hijacking
T1574.002: Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Side-Loading
T1574.006: Hijack Execution Flow: Dynamic Linker Hijacking
T1070.001: Indicator Removal on Host: Clear Windows Event Logs
T1070.003: Indicator Removal on Host: Clear Command History
T1070.004: Indicator Removal on Host: File Deletion
T1036.004: Masquerading: Masquerade Task or Service
T1036.005: Masquerading: Match Legitimate Name or Location
T1112: Modify Registry
T1027: Obfuscated Files or Information
T1542.003: Pre-OS Boot: Bootkit
T1055: Process Injection
T1014: Rootkit
T1218.001: Signed Binary Proxy Execution: Compiled HTML File
T1218.011: Signed Binary Proxy Execution: Rundll32
T1553.002: Subvert Trust Controls: Code Signing
T1078: Valid Accounts
7 TA0006: Credential Access T1110.002: Brute Force: Password Cracking
T1056.001: Input Capture: Keylogging
T1003.001: OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory
8 TA0007: Discovery T1083: File and Directory Discovery
T1046: Network Service Scanning
T1135: Network Share Discovery
T1016: System Network Configuration Discovery
T1049: System Network Connections Discovery
T1033: System Owner/User Discovery
9 TA0008: Lateral Movement T1021.001: Remote Services: Remote Desktop Protocol
T1021.002: Remote Services: SMB/Windows Admin Shares



The MISSION2025 has been known to be linked to the Chinese government and working in alignment with their political and economic goals to target organizations and exfiltrate sensitive information. CTI suspects the MISSION2025 will likely continue collaboration with other threat actor groups to meet their objectives. In the past, it is suspected Chinese state-sponsored threat actor groups are continuously targeting strategically essential countries associated with their “Belt and Road” initiative – and opposing China in the South China Sea. It may be possible that with the help of state-sponsored hackers, China could retaliate and launch cyber-espionage activities against Quad nations.
With China’s growing influence across the world, its efforts to maintain bilateral relations, and pursuance of partnership in support of its Belt and Road Initiative, researchers have assessed that the Chinese threat actor groups will continue to target organizations to gain new insights to achieve objectives such as economic espionage or for intelligence-gathering purposes.
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Recommended Actions

  1. Deploy a unified threat management strategy – including malware detection, deep learning neural networks, and anti-exploit technology – combined with vulnerability and risk mitigation processes
  2. Deploy Zero Trust Policy that leverages tools like security information management, advanced security analytics platforms, security user behaviour analytics, and other analytics systems to help the organization’s security personnel observe in real-time what is happening within their networks so they can orient defences more intelligently.
  3. Facilitate security teams with attack surface management capability for continuous discovery, inventory, classification, prioritization, and security monitoring to gain comprehensive visibility of the enterprise environment.
  4. Emphasize the responsible use of social media platforms, train the workforce on the amount and nature of information being shared.
  5. Plan periodic Red Team exercises to measure the effectiveness of the people, processes, and security technologies used to defend the environment. Red Team exercise helps organizations to improve security control detection, enhance defensive capabilities, and measure the overall effectiveness of existing security operations.
  6. Perform regular Cyber Benchmarking exercises to benchmark the security performance against industry peers, measure the impact of risk mitigation efforts, and report security progress and results to the Board of Directors more clearly and effectively.
  7. Enable emerging security solutions like deception technology powered with machine learning helps in real-time breach detection and prevention.
  8. Classify and segregate the organization’s business-critical system a.k.a as Crown jewels and have a special security monitoring on those assets.
  9. Ensure applications requiring authentication over the internet are protected with multi-factor authentication.
  10. Ensure combination security control such as CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart), Device fingerprinting, IP backlisting, Rate-limiting, and Account lockout are implemented and adequately strengthened to thwart automated brute-force attacks.
  11. Improve the detection signatures of Intrusion detection and prevention systems with custom rules to monitor and alert network intrusions.
  12. Exert caution when opening email attachments or clicking on embedded links received via email communications.
  13. Update all applications/software regularly with the latest versions and security patches alike.
  14. Deploy an email filter solution that screens based on headers and malicious content (e.g., malicious macros, infected attachments, etc.), categorizes email, inspects Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) against reputation feeds, and has customizable rule-based filters.
  15. Strip and/or block emails containing active content (e.g., ActiveX, Java, Visual Basic for Applications [VBA])or macros by default. Administrators should allowlist such content only for legitimate reasons.
  16. Ensure detection signatures and blocklists are up to date.
  17. Implement warning banners to alert users about emails with links and attachments that originate from outside the organization.


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